Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, has been associated with various structural and functional CNS abnormalities but findings about neurobiological mechanisms linking genes to brain phenotypes are just beginning to emerge. Despite the high heritability of the disorder and its main symptom dimensions, common individual genetic variants are likely to account for a small proportion of the phenotype’s variance. Recent findings have drawn attention to the involvement of rare genetic variants in the pathophysiology of ADHD, some being shared with other neurodevelopmental disorders. Traditionally, neurobiological research on ADHD has focused on catecholaminergic pathways, the main target of pharmacological treatments. However, more distal and basic neuronal processes in relation with cell architecture and function might also play a role, possibly accounting for the coexistence of both diffuse and specific alterations of brain structure and activation patterns. This article aims to provide an overview of recent findings in the rapidly evolving field of ADHD neurobiology with a focus on novel strategies regarding pathophysiological analyses.
Não sou mais uma criança. Sei que muitas das várias coisas que sonho não se tornarão realidade, este fato de certa forma tira um pouco do brilho e cor que resta na minha vida, porém, apesar de muitos sonhos acabarem se tornando vãs ilusões, que jamais sairão do mundo utópico e irreal dos sonhos e se tornarão realidade, eu continuo a sonhar. Apesar dos pesares e apesares, sonhar é o que me resta.